DTO’s and why you should be using them

If you’ve worked in any form of modern (decent sized) application, you know that the de facto standard is to use a layered design where people usually define operations into layers corresponding to certain functionality, for example a Data Access Layer, that is nothing else but an implementation of your repository using nHibernate, Entity Framework, etc. While that is a very good idea for most scenarios, a bit of a problem comes around with it, and is the fact that you need to pass around lots of calls between layers, and sometimes is not just calling a DLL inside your solution, sometimes, it’s calling a service hosted somewhere over the network.

The problem

If your app calls services and receives data from them (obviously?) then you might encounter in your service something like this:
public Person AddPerson(string name, string lastName, string email)
Now, let’s first look at the parameters and why this is probably not a very good definition. 
In this method, you have 3 arguments, name, lastName and email; what happens if somebody needs a telephone number? Well, we just add another argument! Dead easy! Yeah, no. Suppose we make it more interesting saying we have Workers and Customers, both inheriting from person, we would then have something like this:
public Person AddWorker(string name, string lastName, string email)
public Person AddCustomer(string name, string lastName, string email)
If you need to add that telephone number now and go for that extra param, you have to add code in two locations, so you need to touch more code, and what happens if we touch more code? Simple, we put more bugs.

The Good

Now, what happens if you have this?
public Worker AddWorker(Worker worker)
public Customer AddCustomer(Customer customer)
DTO stands for Data Transfer Object, and that is precisely what these classes do, we use them to transfer data on our services. For one, code is much simpler to read now! But there is another thing, if Worker and Customer inherit from Person as they should considering they are both a Person, then we can safely add that email to the person without having to change the signature of the service, yes, our service will now have an extra argument but we don’t have to change our service signature on the code, just the DTO it receives. 
Now, more on the common use for DTO’s, just as Martin Fowler states a DTO is
An object that carries data between processes in order to reduce the number of method calls.
Now, it’s fairly obvious that using DTOs for input arguments is good, but what happens for output arguments? Well, similar story really, with a small twist, considering that many people today use ORMs for accessing the database, it’s very likely that you already have a Worker, Customer and person class, because they are part of your domain model, or they are created by Linq To Sql (not a huge fan, but many people still use it), so, should you be using those entities to return on your services? Not a very good idea and I have some reasons for it.

One very simple reason is that the objects generated by these frameworks usually are not serialization friendly, because they are on top of proxy classes which are a pain to serialize for something that outputs JSON or XML. Another potential problem is when your entity doesn’t quite fit the response you want to give, what happens if your service has something like this?

public Salary CalculateWorkerSalary(Worker worker)

You could have a very simple method just returning a double, but let’s think of a more convoluted solution to illustrate the point, imagine salary being like this:

public class Salary
     public double FinalSalary {get;}
     public double TaxDeducted {get;}
     public double Overtime {get;}

So, this is our class, and Overtime means it’s coupled to a user because not everybody does the same amount of overtime. So, what happens now if we also need the Tax code for that salary? Or the overtime rate for the calculation? That is assuming these are not stored on the salary table. More importantly, what happens if we don’t want whoever is calling the API to see the Overtime the Worker is doing? Well, the entity is not fit for purpose and we need a DTO where we can put all of these, simple as that.

The Bad

However, DTOs are not all glory, there is a problem with them and it’s the fact they bloat your application, especially if you have a large application with many entities. If that’s the case, it’s up to you to decide when a DTO is worth it and when it’s not, like many things on software design, there is no rule of thumb and it’s very easy to get it wrong. But for most of things where you pass complex data, you should be using DTOs.

The Ugly

There is another problem with DTOs, and it’s the fact you end up having a lot of code like this:

var query = _workerRepository.GetAll();
var workers = query.Select(ConvertWorkerDTO).ToList();
return workers;

Where ConvertWorkerDTO is just a method looking pretty much like this:

public WorkerDTO ConvertWorkerDTO(Worker worker)
    return new WorkerDTO() {
        Name = worker.Name,
        LastName = worker.LastName,
        Email = worker.Email

Wouldn’t be cool if you could do something without a mapping method, like this:

var query = _workerRepository.GetAll();
var workers = query.Select(x => Worker.BuildFromEntity<Worker, WorkerDTO>(x))
return workers;

Happily, there is a simple way to achieve a result like this one, and it’s combining two very powerful tools, inheritance and reflection. Just have a BaseDTO class that all of your DTOs inherit from and make a method like that one, that manages the conversion by performing a mapping property to property. A fairly simple, yet fully working, version could be this:

public static TDTO BuildFromEntity<TEntity, TDTO>(TEntity entity)
    var dto = Activator.CreateInstance<TDTO>();
    var dtoProperties = typeof (TDTO).GetProperties();
    var entityProperties = typeof (TEntity).GetProperties();

    foreach (var property in dtoProperties)
        if (!property.CanWrite)

        var entityProp =
            entityProperties.FirstOrDefault(x => x.Name == property.Name && x.PropertyType == property.PropertyType);

        if (entityProp == null)

        if (!property.PropertyType.IsAssignableFrom(entityProp.PropertyType))

        var propertyValue = entityProp.GetValue(entity, new object[] {});
        property.SetValue(dto, propertyValue, new object[]{});

    return dto;

And Finally…

The bottom line is like everything, you can over engineer your way into adding far too many DTOs into your system, but ignoring them is not a very good solution either, and adding one or two to a project with more than 15 entities just to feel you’re using them, it’s just as good as using one interface to say you make decoupled systems.

What’s your view on this? Do you agree? Disagree? Share what you think on the comments!

EDIT: As a side note, it’s work checking this article that talks a lot about the subject.

Using Sharp Lite with Fluent nHibernate

One thing I didn’t liked too much when first met S#arp Lite was the fact that Billy McCafferty decided to drop Fluent nHibernate as the defacto mapper for entities. There was a big discussion on the matter of nHibernate making it’s own fluent (or was it Loquacious?) API to map entities on a lot of places, and finally James Gregory, the man who gave us Fluent nHibernate spoke on the matter of nHibernate making an API that looked a lot like his.

The conclusion is pretty simple, Fluent nHibernate is not dead, not even close, there are a lot of folks (me included) that like it and we are not willing to let it go. Having said that, I wanted to integrate my Fluent nHibernate into S#arp Lite, and just as Billy said, is a dead simple thing to do, still will share it here.

The first thing you need to do is to reference the Fluent nHibernate library from your NorthwindDemo.NHibernateProvider project, so you can use it there. After that, you can make your own mappings on the provider. If you don’t know what is a Fluent Mapping, you should read this wiki before you start here. Now that we have our mappings made, we need to change the nHibernate boot process found in NHibernateInitializer so we use Fluent nHibernate instead. Go to the NHibernateInitializer class and change the code for this:

public static Configuration Initialize()
 var cnf 
          = Fluently.Configure()
    x => x.Database("MyDb")
       .Mappings( m => m.FluentMappings.AddFromAssemblyOf<CustomerMapping>());

 var configuration 
          = cnf.BuildConfiguration()
        .Proxy( p => p.ProxyFactoryFactory<DefaultProxyFactoryFactory>() )

 return configuration;

Notice that I’m not using SQL Express like the default install uses, I’m using MySQL instead. The magic of the thing is on the line:

.Mappings( m => m.FluentMappings.AddFromAssemblyOf<customerMapping>()); 

Here, I’m telling FNH to load all the mappings specified in the assembly of CustomerMapping, which is one of my entities’ mappings. After that, we register the DefaultProxyFactoryFactory to manage the lazy loading, which basically gets rid of the old nHibernate.Castle so we don’t have to use an external loader for proxy classes. With this configuration, you should be on your way to use Fluent nHibernate with your S#arp Lite project.

Finally, there is one thing. I think, not so sure though, that there is a version of Fluent NH for nHibernate 3.2, however, if you are using an older one, like me!, I’m using v1.2 which looks for nHibernate 3.1, you will need to make an Assembly redirect, which is easy, just lk in your web.config file for this line:

 <assemblyBinding xmlns="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:asm.v1">
   <assemblyIdentity name="System.Web.Mvc" publicKeyToken="31bf3856ad364e35" />
   <bindingRedirect oldVersion="" newVersion="" />

And change it for this one:

 <assemblyBinding xmlns="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:asm.v1">
   <assemblyIdentity name="System.Web.Mvc" publicKeyToken="31bf3856ad364e35" />
   <bindingRedirect oldVersion="" newVersion="" />
   <assemblyIdentity name="NHibernate" publicKeyToken="aa95f207798dfdb4" culture="neutral" />
   <bindingRedirect oldVersion="" newVersion="" />

The basic idea is to tell the system that when someone (FNH) asks for nHibernate from version to the assembly to resolve is version, so the binding is done properly. This should be it, you should have your own S#arp Lite project running on Fluent nHibernate!!

Happy coding! And as usual, comenting is not forbidden 😉

Booting Sharp Lite and autogenerating Db with nHibernate

When facing a new project, there are many things to consider, but there is no doubt that the words most mentioned and given more buzz are how to accomplish a scalable and maintainable solution without builing the next Amazon for our first version. However, trying to make a solution that is able to grow over time and adapt to new requirements is not an easy task, it’s indeed very tricky business. That’s why there are frameworks, mainly because there are a bunch of guys willing to help those who can’t (or won’t) get into building their own foundation to make a project.

And here is where S#arpArchitecture enters. S#arpArchitecture is project started by Billy McCafferty, a developer/architect well versed on the matter how made a super duper framework to deploy ASP .NET applications. The framework was consistent with several best practices he wrote on a CodeProject article on how to accomplish a nice setup of a project using nHibernate. The thing with S#arpArchitecture is that it was somehow a bit coupled into nHibernate, altough this didn’t seemed to matter at that point because nHibernate was (and IMHO is, but won’t get into that) the best way to accomplish ORM with a .NET project. However, time has changed and EntityFramework is a strong project, not to mention that is handled by the man, we also have now the NoSql fever and there are other stuff that may be yet to come and S#arpArchitecture had to evolve to remove the direct dependencies from nHibernate but as any old project moving away from the original idea has been a difficult business and the most important thing is that to be able t setup a S#arpArchitecture install using other thing than nHibernate, you’ll have to be very versed on topics such as IoC, design patterns, nHibernate itself, so you know what to remove and what not to remove and many other dark stuff.

Because of all these nasty reasons, Billy McCafferty decided to start yet another framework called S#arp Lite. The intention here was to be able to make a decent framework available for a broader audience of developers who didn’t had to be very versed on deep matters of architecture.

So, if you want to make an ASP .NET MVC 3 app and looking for a nice development framework, you should make a run for S#arp Lite and try it out. The first thing you’ll need is to read the blog post where Billy explains why he had to make S#arp Lite despite the fact that we already had a S#arpArchitecture, once you’ve read that, you should also get the basics on S#arp Lite also explained by Billy in this post. If, however, you don’t want to read any of those and just want to jumpstart into S#arp Lite, then the idea would be to:

Before anything, the sample app is found inside the S#arp Lite file downloaded from Github, on the folder called Example, the project is named MyStore. Now, to set up your database for the sample app, you can make two things, one I like it, the other not so much. Before getting to that, make sure that you have a SQL Server database to play with and get your connection string. Mostly if your DB is the integrated SQL Server Express DB that comes with Visual Studio, your connection string will look like this one:

Data Source=localhostsqlexpress;Initial Catalog=SampleDb;Integrated Security=True

The only thing that may change is the Initial Catalog, which is basically up to your choosing. Now that we know the connection string, we need to tell S#arp Lite what is it, so open the web.config file found on MyStore.Web and look for the line where says:

   <add name="MyStoreConnectionString" connectionString="YOUR_CONNECTION_STRING" />

And yes, you guessed it, change where it says YOUR_CONNECTION_STRING for the actual connection string.

Now we just need to setup our DB, for which you have two ways. The first way is the simplest one, which is to use a SQL server administration tool, the Management Studio Express included with the Express version of SQL Server express 2008 is just fine, and run the sql file you can find inside the example project on the folder called “MyStore.DB” et voilà! The project can now be run.

As a side note, the last time I downloaded S#arp Lite (v0.42), when setting up the sample project and compiling, you’d get 11 errors regarding tests and test classes that cannot be found, don’t despair! Just go into MyStore.Tests and remove the reference to nunit.framework and add it again, the assembly should be in your lib folder outside of the project. Now you can run the demo without issues!

Now the other way, which I like a lot more is to use nHibernate to generate your database, which is so cool! And since nHibernate is also very cool, this is a very simple process. Just go into your project called “MyStore.NHibernateProvider” and look for the class called NHibernateInitializer. Just like the name indicates this fellow handles the initialization of nHibernate and we will also generate the DB with it. Go into the class and add the method that will handle DB initialization:

public static void CheckAndBuilDb(Configuration cfg)
 var schemaValidator = new SchemaValidator(cfg);

 try {
 catch (Exception) {
  var schemaBuilder = new SchemaExport(cfg);
  //drop in case of old one
  schemaBuilder.Drop(false, true);
  schemaBuilder.Create(false, true);

Without entering into unnecessary gory details, the idea is to check if the existent DB is up to date and if is not, drop it and regenerate a new one. This does bring a bad side effect, which is the issue of migrating from one version into another. That problem can be fixed doing some nHibernate-fu, but we won’t get into that for now. Build and run and your database will be automatically generating against the mapped entities! Cool uh?

This is pretty much just about it, I’ll make a follow up post with some more stuff on how to get going with S#arp Lite and Fluent nHibernate.